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The ability to affect an opponent's soul, which is usually defined as their spirit or the disembodied core of their consciousness. These types of attacks are usually very broken since they bypass physical durability entirely and can even harm intangible and non-corporeal beings. Strong spiritual/mystic defenses are usually needed to fend off this kind of attack.
One special consideration regarding these types of attacks is whether the opponent has a soul or not. Since it would be rather asinine to ask someone to prove that any given character in fiction has a soul, the way it is usually set up is that living beings have souls by default, unless it is shown/stated/implied that they don't. Robots and constructs don't have souls by default, unless it is shown/stated/implied that they do. Undead and other such creatures are more difficult to determine, so it is usually done on a case - by - case basis.
Effects however, vary from series to series, and go from just removing one's ability to feel emotions (very useful against emotional based powers), but not someone's higher function skills, to total and complete annihilation of one's self.
Examples of characters with soul manipulating attacks:
- Adam Warlock from Marvel Comics (with the Soul Gem)
- Quick Ben from Malazan Book of the Fallen, as well as Anomander Rake with his sword Dragnipur
- Cancer Saints, Oneiros, and several others from Saint Seiya
- Dark Schneider and many others from Bastard!!
- Darth Nihilus and other Sith from his era in Star Wars
- Hellmaster Phibrizzo, and many others from Slayers
- Hazel Grosse from Saiyuki
- Jio Freed from 666 Satan
- Kain, Raziel, and Moebius from Legacy of Kain
- Moon=Millenniummon from Digimon
- Psykers/Libarians/Sorcerors/Daemons/ect...from Warhammer 40,000
- Several characters from Yu-Gi-Oh! such as Yugi, Bakura, Marik, Pegasus, etc.
- Several stands from Jojo's Bizarre Adventure, such as the D'arby brothers' stands, Cheap Trick, and White Snake
- Shang Tsung from Mortal Kombat (possibly others such as Shao Kahn or Shinnok also).
- The Shiki Fujin (Death God) technique and Pain's Soul Extraction from Naruto
- The Spectre, and several others from DC Comics
- Younger Toguro from Yu Yu Hakusho
- Youzen and several others from Houshin Engi
- The Word of God from Preacher is technically this, though it is more of a mind manipulation in practice
- Ghost Pokemon as well as Azelf, Mesprit, and Uxie are able to do this via 1 of 3 aspects of the soul/spirit (willpower, emotion, and knowledge) though they are generally unwilling to. Hell, we can throw Arceus in here too since he made them.
- Jedah Dohma from Darkstalkers